Single User and Multi User MIMO codewords in LTE

Figure shows how the two codewords are used for a single user in the downlink. It is also possible that the code words to be assigned to different users to create multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO). Depending on the channel information available in the eNB, modulation and precoding layers may be different to match the performance. Precoding […]

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Single User and Multi User MIMO codewords in LTE, mimo, precoding choices, channel, two layers, Single User MIMO, Multi User MIMO

Spectrum Analysis of Spreading & Dispreading in WCDMA-3G

How Spreading & Dispreading in WCDMA-3G ? Traditional radio communication systems transmit data using the minimum bandwidth required to carry it as a narrowband signal. CDMA system mix their input data with a fast spreading sequence and transmit a wideband signal. The spreading sequence is independently regenerated at the receiver and mixed with the incoming […]

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Spectrum Analysis of Spreading & Dispreading in WCDMA-3G, Spectrum Analysis, radio, communication, systems, transmit data

Orthogonal Code Usage – Coding & Decoding in WCDMA

How Orthogonal Code works in WCDMA? 1.Coding By spreading, each symbol is multiplied with all the chips in the orthogonal sequence assigned to the user. The resulting sequence is processed and is then transmitted over the physical channel along with other spread symbols. In this figure, 4-digit codes are used. The product of the user […]

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Orthogonal Code Usage - Coding & Decoding in WCDMA, transmitter, receiver, code, usage wcdma, wcdma codes

Codeword, layer, and precoding in LTE

Terms codeword, layer, and precoding have been taken to refer specifically to LTE signals and processing. The figure shows the processing steps to which they relate. The terms used in the following ways: Codeword: codeword represents the user data before it is formatted for transmission. One or two code words, CW0 and CW1, may be […]

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Codeword, layer, and precoding in LTE, codeword, Layer, Precoding, Eigen beamforming, channel, mimo in lte, user mimo, beamforming, LTE signals

The MIMO channel Matrix

The MIMO channel Matrix Consider for a moment in time, on the same frequency and channel modeling as a black box with durable internal components. If we add two completely different input signals is to be mixed with each other in a certain manner depending on the value of Z1 to Z4. If we send […]

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The MIMO channel Matrix, mimo, lte mimo, mimo channel, consider channel mimo, lte optimization

Visualization of Beam Forming in LTE

Currently, beam forming is only applicable for TDD version of LTE. The time synchronous version of LTE TDD on uplink and downlink also makes the implementation of beam forming more attractive than in LTE FDD. Beam forming scheme is a signal processing technology that is used to direct radio transmission in a chosen angular direction. […]

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beam forming, information, channel, forming, coverage, throughput, signal, processing

What and How Cell Edge Rate in LTE

Cell Edge Rate in LTE is simple if it’s High then Coverage Low and if It’s Low then Coverage high similar to Frequency selection. Not clear lets understand in detail. Cell Edge Rate in LTE Similar to other wireless communications systems, such as CDMA2000 EVDO, WiMAX and HSPA, the LTE features a rate layering feature. […]

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edge rate, resource block, volume coding, edge, cell, resource, downlink, modulation

Okumura-Hata Model for LTE

The Hata Model for Urban Areas, also known as the Okumura-Hata model for being a developed version of the Okumura Model, is the most widely used radio frequency propagation model for predicting the behavior of cellular propagation in built up areas. This model incorporates the graphical information from Okumura model and develops it further to […]

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okumura hata model, station antenna, propagation model, suburban, structures, okumura, propagation

Penetration loss in LTE

Penetration loss in LTE indicates the fading of radio signals from an indoor terminal to a base station due to obstruction by a building. For an indoor receiver to maintain normal communications, the signal must be sufficiently strong. The indoor receiver obtains radio signals in the following scenarios for Penetration loss: The indoor receiver obtains […]

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outdoor transmitter, indoor receiver, penetration loss, penetration, loss, indoor, signals, coverage

LTE OFDMA and Downlink Frame Structure Details

LTE OFDMA and Downlink Frame Structure Details Downlink OFDMA time-frequency multiplexing LTE Spectrum Flexibility and Bandwidth FDD downlink frame structure detailed TDD frame structure LTE (any OFDM/OFDMA) band is made up of multiple small spaced channels and we call each of these small channels as “Sub Carrier”. Space between the chhanel and the next channel […]

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LTE OFDMA and Downlink Frame Structure Details, lte, ofdma, resource block, lte resource block

What is HLR and VLR and its function in GSM

As From the Name VLR means Visitor Location Register and HLR means Home Location Register so it has all detail of subscriber so VLR has temporary details. Let’s check in detail. Home Location Register (HLR) The HLR is the reference database for subscriber parameters. Actually HLR Having all the detail like customer ID, customer number, […]

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location area identity, subscriber, mobile, system, hlr, vlr, authentication, home location register, visitor location register, sms details, detail bill imformation, calling details data

Multi-antenna Techniques LTE to improve the downlink performance

There are five methods of multiple antennas have been defined for the LTE downlink to improve the performance: Receive diversity at the mobile Transmit diversity using SFBC at the eNB (evolved Node B) MIMO spatial multiplexing at the eNB, for one or two users Cyclic Delay Diversity (CDD) at the eNB, used in conjunction with […]

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Multi-antenna Techniques LTE to improve the downlink performance, at the enb, multi antenna techniques, antenna techniques, beam steering, spatial multiplexing, signal power, receive diversity, multiple antennas, lte, cyclic delay