The standard propagation model is a model (deduced from the Hata formula) particularly suitable for predication in the 150MHz~3500MHz band over long distance (1Km<d<20Km) and is very adapted to GSM900/1800, UMTS,

CDMA2000, WiMAX and LTE technologies. This model uses the terrain profile, diffraction mechanisms (calculated in several ways) and take into account clutter classes and effective antenna heights in order to calculate path loss.

The model may be used for any technology; it is based on the following formula:

LSPM = K1 + K2 log (d )+ K3 log (H Txeff)+ K4 Diffractio nLoss + K5 log (d )log (H Txeff)+ K6 H Rxeff + K cluttrt f (clutter)


  • K1 Constant offset (dB)
  • K2 Multiplying factor for log(d)
  • d Distance between the receiver and the transmitter (m)
  • K3 Multiplying factor for log(HTxeff)
  • HTxeff Effective height of the transmitter antenna(m)
  • K4 Multiplying factor for diffraction calculation, K4 has to be a positive number
  • Diffraction loss Losses due to diffraction over an obstructed path(dB)
  • K5 Multiplying factor for log(d)log(HTxeff)
  • K6 Multiplying factor for HRxeff
  • HRxeff Mobile antenna height (m)
  • KClutter Multiplying factor for f(clutter)
  • f(clutter) Average of weighted losses due to clutter

The standard propagation model can be used for propagation model calibration through CW (Continuous Wave) test by using simulation tools.