Cost231-Hata model can be used in macro cells as the propagation model. The application range is as follows:

Frequency band: 1500 MHz to 2000 MHz

Base station height: 30 meters to 200 meters. The base station must be higher than the surrounding buildings.

Terminal antenna height: 1 meter to 10 meters

Distance between the transmitter and receiver: 1 km to 20 km

The Cost231-Hata model can be expressed by the following formula:

 

Total = L - a(Hss) + Cm

L = 46.3 + 33.9 × lg( f ) – 13.82 × lg(HBS) + (44.9 – 6.55 × lg(HBS)) × lg(d )

Where, f indicates the working frequency of the system. The unit is MHz.

HBS indicates the height of the base station antenna. The unit is m.

HSS indicates the height of the terminal antenna. The unit is m.

d indicates the distance between the terminal and the base station. The unit is km.

a(hss) indicates the terminal gain function. This function is related to the antenna height and working frequency of the terminal and the environment.

The value of Cm depends on the terrain type. The values of Cm in the standard Cost231-Hata are as follows:

In large cities: Cm = 3 (as defined in Urban – large city in the related protocol)

In medium-sized cities: Cm = 0 (as defined in Urban – small city in the related protocol)

In suburban areas: Cm = -2(log( f /28))2 – 5.4dB (as defined in Urban – Suburban in the related protocol)

In rural open areas: Cm = -4.78 × (lg( f ))2 + 18.33 × lg( f ) -40.94

(As defined in Rural (open) – desert in the related protocol)

In highways: Cm = -4.78 × (lg( f ))2 + 18.33 × lg( f ) -35.94

(As defined in Rural (quasi-open) – countryside where the terminal is unobstructed for 100 meters in the front in the related protocol)

Since some of the working frequencies of the LTE networks are 2.3 GHz and 2.6 GHz have exceeded the band range of the standard Cost 231-Hata model, that is, 150 MHz to 2000 MHz. Therefore, in the actual LTE system design, the standard Cost231-Hata model must be corrected based on the CW test result.

According to the planning experience and actual CW test results in multiple scenarios, a set of Cm has been created in the experienced model.