LTE

How Non Access Stratum procedures works in LTE

The procedures for the Non Access Stratum, especially power management procedures are substantially similar to UMTS. Main change is that the UMTS EPS allows concatenation certain procedures to allow faster creation of connection and media. Create MME UE context, when the UE is on and attaches to the network. Assign a unique ID called SAE […]

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ue related information, Non Access Stratum, Access Stratum, Non Access, procedures, periods of inactivity, inactive to active, ecm idle mme, paging message, ecm idle, mme, e utran, radio bearers

Work details of LTE Core Network Nodes PCRF, HSS, P-GW, S-GW, and MME in LTE

LTE core network also called EPC in SAE is responsible for the complete control of the UE and the creation of media. The main logical nodes LTE EPC are: • PDN Gateway (P-GW) • Serving Gateway (S-GW) • Mobility Management Entity (MME) PCRF of LTE Core Network The political control and charging rules is responsible […]

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lte core network, mme, gateway, ue, s gw, p gw, application qos, access point, management entity, interworking, gpp technologies

LTE Overall Architecture with EPC Network Elements and Functional split between E-UTRAN and EPC

EPS provides the user with a PDN IP connectivity for Internet access and for the operation of services such as Voice over IP (VoIP). An EPS bearer is usually associated with a QoS. Multiple carriers may be set for a user, in order to provide different QoS flows and connectivity to different PDNs. For example, […]

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eps network, LTE Overall Architecture, EPC Network Elements, E-UTRAN and EPC, access network, network elements, standardized interfaces, network operators, voip

LTE air interface characteristics & LTE Channel Function

The air interface is the radio-based communication link between the mobile station and the active base station. LTE air interface supports high data rates. LTE uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) for downlink transmission to achieve high peak data rates in high spectrum bandwidth. LTE uses Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) for […]

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logical channels, LTE air interface, LTE Air interface characteristics, transport channels, access control, division multiple, frequency division, mac

X2 interface Function in LTE – A Connection between Two eNodeBs

The X2 interface is the interface between the eNodeBs. X2 interface protocol stack is described in Figure. X2 Interface performs the following functions: X2-UP (User Plane) X2-CP (Control Plane) LTE X2-UP (User Plane) The LTE X2-UP protocol tunnels end-user packets between the LTE eNodeBs. The tunneling function supports the identification of packets with the tunnels […]

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X2 interface Function in LTE, A Connection between Two eNodeBs, traffic load, X2 User Plane, X2 Control Plane, transport network, transport layer, two eNodeBs Connection Interface, plane pdus, load management, data forwarding

S1 interface – A Single Interface between LTE RAN and evolved packet core

The S1 interface is the interface between the LTE RAN and evolved packet core. S1 interface protocol stack is described in Figure. S1 performs the following functions: S1-UP (user plane) S1-CP (control plane) LTE S1-UP (user plane) The S1 user plane external interface (S1-U) is defined between the LTE eNodeB and the LTE S-GW. The […]

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S1 interface, control plane, enodeb, mme, s gw, user plane, transport network, radio bearer, protocol, network layer, ip transport, evolved packet, data delivery, interface,

Function of Control plane protocol stacks in LTE

The control plane includes the application protocol. It also includes the signaling bearers for transporting the application protocol messages. The application protocol is used for setting up bearers in the radio network layer. For example, radio access bearers or radio links. Figure shows “Control plane protocol stack” comprises Radio Resource Control (RRC), Packet Data Convergence […]

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Function of Control plane protocol stacks in LTE, sublayer, application protocol, physical layer, application protocol, nas, access stratum, measurement reporting, pdcp sublayer, lte radio, link control, enodeb, access control

Function of User plane protocol stacks in LTE

The user plane includes the data streams and the data bearers for the data streams. The data streams are characterized by one or more frame protocols specified for that interface. Figure shows “User-plane protocol stack” comprise Medium Access Control (MAC), Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP), Radio Link Control (RLC) and Physical (PHY) sub layers. Apart […]

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Function of User plane protocol stacks in LTE, user plane protocol, access control, rlc, pdcp, rrc, ue, lte, user plane, protocol

Evolved Packet Core and Quality of Service QOS in LTE

The LTE related core network evolution is referred to as Evolved Packet Core (EPC). LTE architecture is based on the system architecture evolution (SAE) model defined by the 3G Partnership Project (3GPP). EPC consists of the following network elements: Mobility Management Entity The Mobility Management Entity (MME) is the LTE mobility management and session management […]

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Evolved Packet Core and quality of service qos in LTE, quality of service, evolved packet core, pdn gw, packet core, policy enforcement, session management, core network, mme

LTE Frame Structure and Resource Block Architecture

LTE Frame Structure The figure below shows the LTE frame structure under Time division mode (TDD) Type 2 and Frequency Division mode (FDD) Type 1. Main differences between the two modes are Frame 0 and frame 5 (always downlink in TDD) Frame 1 and frame 6 is always used as for synchronization in TDD Frame […]

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resource block, reference signal, frequency, block architecture, cyclic prefix, division mode, physical resource, frame

Downlink Power control in LTE

The eNodeB determines the downlink transmit energy per resource element (EPRE). Downlink cell-specific reference-signal (RS) EPRE is constant across the downlink system bandwidth and constant across all subframes until different cell-specific RS power information is received. The downlink RS EPRE is given by the parameter Reference-signal-power provided by higher layers. In cases 16QAM, 64QAM, spatial […]

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Downlink Power control in LTE, eNodeB, antenna ports, reference signal, user mimo, downlink

How UE Switch to Service types in LTE?

The action of camping on provides access to services. The network provides different levels of service to a UE in either Idle mode or Connected mode. Three levels of services are defined: LIMITED SERVICE: emergency calls on an acceptable cell. Acceptable cell: UE may camp to obtain limited service like emergency call. The minimum set […]

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How UE Switch to Service types in LTE?, acceptable cell, suitable cell, selection criteria, normal service, barred service